Delta blues is one of the earliest-known styles of blues.It originated in the Mississippi Delta, and is regarded as a regional variant of country blues.Guitar and harmonica are its dominant instruments; slide guitar is a hallmark of the style. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" (1927) tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton were also influential. Blues performances were organized by the Theater Owners Bookers Association in nightclubs such as the Cotton Club and juke joints such as the bars along Beale Street in Memphis. The band formed also began a successful tour under the Blues Brothers marquee. Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, At the time, there was no clear musical division between "blues" and "country", except for the ethnicity of the performer, and even that was sometimes documented incorrectly by record companies. (1991). coffee each morning with Guy as he currently does a free Facebook live stream on Sunday through Friday each week at 10 AM Eastern time.. Price includes free shipping, US customers only, sorry. The blues was highlighted in Season 2012, Episode 1 of "In Performance at The White House", entitled "Red, White and Blues". Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and audio feedback in his music. Brown played the part of the young James in the documentary. Hosted by President Obama and Mrs. Obama, the show featured performances by B.B. But the origins of the blues were some decades earlier, probably around 1890.  Prominent jazz, folk or rock performers, such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, and Bob Dylan have performed significant blues recordings. The term Blues may have come from "blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness; an early use of the term in this sense is in George Colman's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798). Handy Awards or of the Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and Traditional Blues Album. ", "The Evolution of the 12-Bar Blues Progression", "A Jazz Improvisation Almanac, Outside Shore Music Online School". Boogie-woogie was pioneered by the Chicago-based Jimmy Yancey and the Boogie-Woogie Trio (Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis).  Expressive guitar solos were a key feature of this music. Another development in this period was big band blues.  The first appearance of the blues is usually dated after the Emancipation Act of 1863, between 1860s and 1890s, a period that coincides with post-emancipation and later, the establishment of juke joints as places where blacks went to listen to music, dance, or gamble after a hard day's work.  With the popularity of early performers, such as Bessie Smith, use of the twelve-bar blues spread across the music industry during the 1920s and 30s.  Chicago boogie-woogie performers included Clarence "Pine Top" Smith and Earl Hines, who "linked the propulsive left-hand rhythms of the ragtime pianists with melodic figures similar to those of Armstrong's trumpet in the right hand". He became a popular and prolific composer, and billed himself as the "Father of the Blues"; however, his compositions can be described as a fusion of blues with ragtime and jazz, a merger facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm that had long been a part of ragtime; Handy's signature work was the "Saint Louis Blues". Their style is characterized by the use of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica, and a rhythm section of bass and drums. Gordon's successor at the library was John Lomax. Early country bluesmen such as Skip James, Charley Patton, Georgia Tom Dorsey played country and urban blues and had influences from spiritual singing.  Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican, Bob Wills, Bill Monroe and Hank Williams have all described themselves as blues singers and their music has a blues feel that is different, at first glance at least, from the later country pop of artists like Eddy Arnold. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called "AAB" pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars. , City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate, as a performer was no longer within their local, immediate community, and had to adapt to a larger, more varied audience's aesthetic. Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon and Jimmy Reed were all born in Mississippi and moved to Chicago during the Great Migration.  The phrase blue devils may also have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the "intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal". In contrast to the Chicago style, King's band used strong brass support from a saxophone, trumpet, and trombone, instead of using slide guitar or harp. Black and white musicians shared the same repertoire and thought of themselves as "songsters" rather than blues musicians. One blues rock performer, Jimi Hendrix, was a rarity in his field at the time: a black man who played psychedelic rock.  Classic female urban and vaudeville blues singers were popular in the 1920s, among them "the big three"—Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Lucille Bogan. Because James had not been filmed before the 1960s, Keith B. Hank, Jr.'s version wasn't as successful, eventually peaking at number 12 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. Slavery in the colonial history of the United States, Historically black colleges and universities, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, National Black Caucus of State Legislators, Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, resurgence of interest in American roots music and early African American music, "BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Origins of the blues", Devi, Debra (2013). The blues evolved from informal performances in bars to entertainment in theaters. Bebop marked a major shift in the role of jazz, from a popular style of music for dancing, to a "high-art", less-accessible, cerebral "musician's music". The Story.  Almost 30 years later, Mahal wrote blues for, and performed a banjo composition, claw-hammer style, in the 2001 movie release Songcatcher, which focused on the story of the preservation of the roots music of Appalachia. The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames, especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (for example, in "A Hard Day's Night"). Musicians were therefore segregated into two categories: gospel singers and blues singers, guitar preachers and songsters.  All these sources show the existence of many different structures distinct from twelve-, eight-, or sixteen-bar. Kunzler, Martin (1988). La passione per il blues comincia per Roberto Formignani (chitarra, voce) e Antonio D’Adamo (armonica) nel 1981 quando fondano “The Mannish Blues Band“, con la quale ottengono riconoscimenti a livello nazionale (Quelli Della Notte, Pistoia Blues, Milano Blues festival, Aventino Blues, Imola Blues, Ravenna Blues, ecc. Ted Nugent often performs "Soul Man" in his live shows, as did Prince during his 2004 Musicology tour. Welding, Peter; Brown, Toby, eds. (Parentheticals in Garofalo.). There are also 16-bar blues, such as Ray Charles's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bars" and Herbie Hancock's "Watermelon Man".  However, in the 1920s, when country blues began to be recorded, the use of the banjo in blues music was quite marginal and limited to individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon. I was alone in the hot lights Not too much left inside. Its influence on popular singing has been so widespread that, at least among males, singing and emoting have become almost identical—it is a matter of projection rather than hitting the notes.". Garofalo cited Barlow in "Handy's sudden success demonstrated [the] commercial potential of [the blues], which in turn made the genre attractive to the Tin Pan Alley hacks, who wasted little time in turning out a deluge of imitations."  The saxophonist J. T. Brown played in bands led by Elmore James and by J. The first publication of blues sheet music may have been "I Got the Blues", published by New Orleans musician Antonio Maggio in 1908 and described as "the earliest published composition known to link the condition of having the blues to the musical form that would become popularly known as 'the blues. The album was not as critically acclaimed or commercially successful as Family Tradition and Whiskey Bent and Hell Bound. They are now lost. Steinberg, Jesse R.; Fairweather, Abrol (eds.) Nonetheless, the recordings of some of the classic female blues singers were purchased by white buyers as well. His songs, originally distributed only in Europe, commented on political issues such as racism or Vietnam War issues, which was unusual for this period.  Tampa Red's classic "Tight Like That" (1928) is a sly wordplay with the double meaning of being "tight" with someone coupled with a more salacious physical familiarity. Contemporary blues music is nurtured by several blues labels such as: Alligator Records, Ruf Records, Severn Records, Chess Records (MCA), Delmark Records, NorthernBlues Music, Fat Possum Records and Vanguard Records (Artemis Records). This commercial stream had important consequences for blues music, which, together with jazz and gospel music, became a component of R&B.. Later, several recordings were made by Robert W. Gordon, who became head of the Archive of American Folk Songs of the Library of Congress. Many blues musicians based in Memphis moved to Chicago in the late 1930s or early 1940s and became part of the urban blues movement. However, when rural black music began to be recorded in the 1920s, both categories of musicians used similar techniques: call-and-response patterns, blue notes, and slide guitars. In Britain, it developed a distinctive and influential style dominated by electric guitar and made international stars of several proponents of the genre including The Rolling Stones, The Animals, Eric Clapton, Fleetwood Mac and Led Zeppelin. 2, The Best of Hank Williams Jr. Volume One: Roots and Branches, That's How They Do It in Dixie: The Essential Collection, All My Rowdy Friends Are Coming Over Tonight, Living Proof: The Hank Williams Jr. Story, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Habits_Old_and_New&oldid=977818525, Short description is different from Wikidata, Album articles lacking alt text for covers, Articles with album ratings that need to be turned into prose, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Dinosaur" (Hank Williams Jr., Bob Corbin) – 3:17, This page was last edited on 11 September 2020, at 05:10. Blue notes (or "worried notes"), usually thirds, fifths or sevenths flattened in pitch are also an essential part of the sound. It was also his fifth album on the Elektra/Curb label. Life and career Early life. The new migrants constituted a new market for the music industry. Major artists of the Texas style are Johnny Winter, Stevie Ray Vaughan, the Fabulous Thunderbirds (led by harmonica player and singer-songwriter Kim Wilson), and ZZ Top. Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England choral traditions, and in particular of Isaac Watts's hymns, mixed with African rhythms and call-and-response forms. '" Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" was published in 1912; W.C. White performers such as the Beatles had brought African-American music to new audiences, both within the U.S. and abroad. The follow up single was an original song of Hank, Jr. titled "Old Habits" that fared better, peaking at number 6 on the Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart.  Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. Robert William Gary Moore (4 April 1952 – 6 February 2011) was a Northern Irish musician and singer-songwriter. The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. In the late 1950s, a new blues style emerged on Chicago's West Side pioneered by Magic Sam, Buddy Guy and Otis Rush on Cobra Records. The bassist and prolific songwriter and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene. The long boom following World War II induced another massive migration of the African-American population, the Second Great Migration, which was accompanied by a significant increase of the real income of the urban blacks. ", There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the genre took its shape from the idiosyncrasies of individual performers. They come from different eras and include styles such as ragtime-vaudeville, Delta and country blues, and urban styles from Chicago and the West Coast. These observations coincide more or less with the recollections of Jelly Roll Morton, who said he first heard blues music in New Orleans in 1902; Ma Rainey, who remembered first hearing the blues in the same year in Missouri; and W.C. Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative use of slide electric guitar. Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels. Usually jazz had harmonic structures stemming from brass bands, whereas blues had blues forms such as the 12-bar blues. Morales, p. 276. Recorded blues and country music can be found as far back as the 1920s, when the record industry created the marketing categories "race music" and "hillbilly music" to sell music by blacks for blacks and by whites for whites, respectively. In addition to Robert Johnson, influential performers of this style included his predecessors Charley Patton and Son House. In the UK, bands emulated U.S. blues legends, and UK blues rock-based bands had an influential role throughout the 1960s.. Buchana, Ms. Jody, Shirley Brown, and dozens of others. On a guitar this may be played as a simple steady bass or it may add to that stepwise quarter note motion from the fifth to the sixth of the chord and back. Um dos poucos baixistas líder de banda do Blues, Dixon é considerado o "poeta do blues", já que suas letras se tornaram hinos da cultura do blues. W.C. The first publication of blues sheet music may have been "I Got the Blues", published by New Orleans musician Antonio Maggio in 1908 and described as "the earliest published composition known to link the condition of having the blues to the musical form that would become popularly known as 'the blues.'" For other uses, see.  Dallas-born T-Bone Walker, who is often associated with the California blues style, performed a successful transition from the early urban blues à la Lonnie Johnson and Leroy Carr to the jump blues style and dominated the blues-jazz scene at Los Angeles during the 1940s. Habits Old and New is the thirty-first studio album by country music artist Hank Williams Jr. and was released under Elektra Records/Curb Records in June 1980. You know they killed my sister and my brother Spiritual singing developed because African-American communities could gather for mass or worship gatherings, which were called camp meetings. Blues songs with sexually explicit lyrics were known as dirty blues.  The smooth Louisiana style of Professor Longhair and, more recently, Dr. John blends classic rhythm and blues with blues styles. Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices.  Additionally, there are theories that the four-beats-per-measure structure of the blues might have its origins in the Native American tradition of pow wow drumming. Eric Clapton, known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream, made a comeback in the 1990s with his album Unplugged, in which he played some standard blues numbers on acoustic guitar. At a 7:4 ratio, it is not close to any interval on the conventional Western diatonic scale. Handy was the first to popularize blues-influenced music among non-black Americans.  The first noncommercial recordings of blues music, termed proto-blues by Paul Oliver, were made by Odum for research purposes at the very beginning of the 20th century. The first commercial recording of vocal blues by an African-American singer: Traditional spiritual performed by Texas gospel singer, Chicago blues of the late prewar era, the so-called, "Blues singing is about emotion. The first recording by an African American singer was Mamie Smith's 1920 rendition of Perry Bradf… 44–47: "As marketing categories, designations like race and, Garofalo, p. 27. An important label of this era was the Chicago-based Bluebird Records. B. Lenoir, but the saxophone was used as a backing instrument for rhythmic support more than as a lead instrument. Alan Lomax's recordings of Mississippi Fred McDowell would eventually bring him wider attention on both the blues and folk circuit, with McDowell's droning style influencing North Mississippi hill country blues musicians. The origins of spirituals go back much further than the blues, usually dating back to the middle of the 18th century, when the slaves were Christianized and began to sing and play Christian hymns, in particular those of Isaac Watts, which were very popular. Although she admitted being unable to describe the manner of singing she heard, Forten wrote that the songs "can't be sung without a full heart and a troubled spirit", conditions that have inspired countless blues songs.. The first recording by an African American singer was Mamie Smith's 1920 rendition of Perry Bradford's "Crazy Blues".  The simplest shuffles, which were the clearest signature of the R&B wave that started in the mid-1940s, were a three-note riff on the bass strings of the guitar. Before World War II, the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clear.  He also participated in the rendition of compilations of major blues artists in a series of high-quality CDs. É dele a composição de um dos maiores clássicos, Hoochie Coochie Man , que se tornou famosa na versão de Muddy Waters . "Gradually, instrumental and harmonic accompaniment were added, reflecting increasing cross-cultural contact." George Jones made a remake of the song and was released in Sept. 13, 2005. Blues musicians are musical artists who are primarily recognized as writing, performing, and recording blues music. Like jazz, rock and roll, heavy metal music, hip hop music, reggae, rap, country music, and pop music, blues has been accused of being the "devil's music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior. They are labeled by Roman numbers referring to the degrees of the progression. Little Walter, Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) and Sonny Terry are well known harmonica (called "harp" by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene. While popular musicians like Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry, both recording for Chess, were influenced by the Chicago blues, their enthusiastic playing styles departed from the melancholy aspects of blues. To sad old songs. Much of the time, some or all of these chords are played in the harmonic seventh (7th) form. , The blues' 12-bar structure and the blues scale was a major influence on rock and roll music. In contrast with the West Side blues, the Texas style is strongly influenced by the British rock-blues movement. Call-and-response shouts were an early form of blues-like music; they were a "functional expression ... style without accompaniment or harmony and unbounded by the formality of any particular musical structure". Idiosyncratic numbers of bars are occasionally used, such as the 9-bar progression in "Sitting on Top of the World", by Walter Vinson. B. In melody, blues is distinguished by the use of the flattened third, fifth and seventh of the associated major scale..  Other chord progressions, such as 8-bar forms, are still considered blues; examples include "How Long Blues", "Trouble in Mind", and Big Bill Broonzy's "Key to the Highway". After World War II, new styles of electric blues became popular in cities such as Chicago, Memphis, Detroit and St. Louis. These recordings were typically labeled "race records" to distinguish them from records sold to white audiences.  The first blues recordings from the 1920s are categorized as a traditional, rural country blues and a more polished city or urban blues.  The style also was closely related to ragtime, which developed at about the same time, though the blues better preserved "the original melodic patterns of African music". King, Bo Diddley, Erykah Badu, Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, Charlie Musselwhite, Blues Traveler, Jimmie Vaughan, and Jeff Baxter. The film earned Mahal a Grammy nomination for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture and a BAFTA nomination. Rock and roll has been called "blues with a backbeat"; Carl Perkins called rockabilly "blues with a country beat". During this period, Freddie King and Albert King often played with rock and soul musicians (Eric Clapton and Booker T & the MGs) and had a major influence on those styles of music. Blues as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. ). Handy's "The Memphis Blues" followed in the same year. White audiences' interest in the blues during the 1960s increased due to the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band featuring guitarist Michael Bloomfield, and the British blues movement. Bluesmen such as Big Bill Broonzy and Willie Dixon started looking for new markets in Europe. "Why Is the Blues Called the 'Blues'? Early country music was infused with the blues. Jump blues grew up from the boogie woogie wave and was strongly influenced by big band music. She overcame her depression and later noted a number of songs, such as Poor Rosy, that were popular among the slaves. African-American singers voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, [and] hard times". I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time Strongly influenced by Jimmy Reed, swamp blues has a slower pace and a simpler use of the harmonica than the Chicago blues style performers such as Little Walter or Muddy Waters. George Jones has this out now, and though it's not as good as Hank's version, I think it fits him pretty well too. However, beginning in the 1990s, digital multitrack recording and other technological advances and new marketing strategies including video clip production increased costs, challenging the spontaneity and improvisation that are an important component of blues music. His album Alabama Blues contained a song with the following lyric: I never will go back to Alabama, that is not the place for me (2x) By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Blues musical styles, forms (12-bar blues), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock and roll, jazz, and popular music. During the 1980s blues also continued in both traditional and new forms. The lyrics generally end on the last beat of the tenth bar or the first beat of the 11th bar, and the final two bars are given to the instrumentalist as a break; the harmony of this two-bar break, the turnaround, can be extremely complex, sometimes consisting of single notes that defy analysis in terms of chords. The song tells the story of a singer who has been through some tough times in life. A lot of the 1970s-era "outlaw" country music by Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings also borrowed from the blues. Though not directly influenced by boogie woogie, his "groovy" style is sometimes called "guitar boogie". Rockabillies were also said to be 12-bar blues played with a bluegrass beat. Before World War II, Tampa Red was sometimes referred to as "the Guitar Wizard". , By the beginning of the 1960s, genres influenced by African American music such as rock and roll and soul were part of mainstream popular music.
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